1. This shows the anatomy of the knee, including the menisci, cartilage, ligaments, patella, femur, and tibia.
2. This shows an ACL tear.
3. ACL injuries commonly occur in sports like football, which have rapid changes of direction
Menisci are the “shock absorbers” of the knee, increasing stability. Acute meniscus tears often happen in sports, from sudden motions like cutting, squatting and twisting. Treatment for these injuries can be performed with or without surgery, depending on the severity of the tear.
Articular cartilage is a type of connective tissue on the ends of long bones. It facilitates movement, making it easier for bones to slide past each other at the joint. The cartilage can be torn from acute trauma like a dislocation, or as a result of wear and tear over time. It can also be injured following certain issues like osteochondritis, which occurs when decreased blood flow to a bone under cartilage causes part of the bone to die, causing both the bone and cartilage to crack and break off.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tears are one of the most common sports injuries. They commonly occur in sports with rapid changes of direction or jumping like soccer, football, and basketball. Treatment often includes a surgical treatment with a 9-12 month recovery for young athletes, but is not always needed.
Other Ligament Injury
In addition to the ACL, tears of the PCL, MCL, and LCL are also common knee injuries.
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When the kneecap falls out of the trochlear groove, knee pain and a variety of different patellofemoral injuries can occur. Patellofemoral instability is a very common issue, Especially in young and active patients. This problem is initially treated conservatively after the first dislocation, but after issues persist surgery becomes more common. The outlook for knee stabilization surgery is around six to nine months.
Many common hip injuries are a result of sports. Repetitive motions and running can put athletes at risk for a variety of conditions, including meniscus tears, ligament injuries, and IT band syndrome. Dr. Urband will discuss prevention and treatment options with his patients to keep athletes on the field.
Arthritis means inflammation (itis) of the joint (arthro). There are over a hundred types of arthritis that can affect any joint, but the three most common types are osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and post traumatic arthritis. Osteoarthritis inflames the joint over time, as the articular cartilage deteriorates, bone rubs against bone, and stiffness and pain ensue. In rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system targets and harms the articular cartilage. In post traumatic arthritis, arthritis develops after an injury to the knee, from broken bones to meniscus tears.
Attribution for Images
4. Lorie Shaull. “Carli Lloyd”. Wikimedia Commons, 4 September 2019. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carli_Lloyd_(48677254417).jpg.
5. www.scientificanimations.com. "Runners-knee SAG". Wikimedia Commons, August 24, 2016, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Runners-knee_SAG.jpg.
5. This is an illustration of runner's knee, which is a common sports injury.